Are Air Plants Harmful to Trees?

Air plants, with their unique appearance and low-maintenance needs, make a captivating addition to our indoor and outdoor spaces. In their natural habitats, these fascinating plants can often be found growing on trees.

This leads to a common question among gardeners and plant enthusiasts – Are air plants harmful to trees? This article explores the relationship between air plants and trees and reveals whether they pose a threat to their hosts.

Also, Read: How to Water Air Plants: Common Mistakes and Best Practices

Understanding Air Plants

Air plants, also known as Tillandsia, are members of the Bromeliad family, which consists of approximately 650 species.

These plants have a unique ability to thrive without soil, using their roots only for anchorage. They obtain their nutrients from water and airborne or waterborne particles, absorbed through their specialized leaves.

Air Plants and Trees: A Symbiotic Relationship

The relationship between air plants and trees is a fascinating aspect of their life history, and it’s based on a form of symbiosis known as commensalism.

What is Commensalism?

Commensalism is a type of symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefits significantly. In this case, the air plants benefit from the relationship because the trees provide them with a place to live, while the trees neither benefit nor are harmed by the air plants’ presence.

How do Air Plants Benefit?

Air plants, or Tillandsias, are epiphytes, which means they live on the surface of other plants. In their natural environments, these could be trees, rocks, or even telephone wires.

When they grow on trees, the tree provides a great vantage point to access sunlight and absorb water and nutrients from the air. The height also offers protection from herbivorous animals that might eat the plants if they were within reach.

How do Trees Factor In?

Since air plants are epiphytes and not parasites, they don’t extract any nutrients or water from the tree itself. The tree is simply a convenient structure for the air plant to attach to and grow on. Unlike parasitic plants that harm their host by extracting nutrients, air plants don’t cause damage to the tree.

The roots of air plants aren’t used for gathering nutrients or water, as with most plants. Instead, they are used purely for anchorage. They secure the air plant to the tree but don’t penetrate the tree’s bark or tap into its resources.

Check out: Why is my air plant turning red + How to care for air plants

Is there any Impact on Trees?

The presence of air plants is typically benign for the trees they inhabit. In some cases, a large accumulation of air plants may weigh down smaller or weaker tree branches, but this is generally not an issue for healthy, mature trees.

If anything, a tree hosting air plants could potentially benefit from the added coverage, which may provide some extra shade and promote a slightly more humid microclimate.

Moreover, air plants can contribute to a richer ecosystem in the tree’s canopy. They might become a food source for certain creatures or provide shelter for small organisms, thus adding to the overall biodiversity in the area.

So in essence, the relationship between air plants and trees is a peaceful coexistence, where air plants get home without causing harm to their host tree.

Benefits of Air Plants to Trees

While the relationship between air plants and trees is largely considered commensal, where the air plant benefits and the tree is largely unaffected, there may be some indirect benefits that trees gain from hosting air plants.

Increased Microclimate Humidity

Air plants, with their thick, moisture-absorbent leaves, can retain and release moisture in the immediate area around them. This might create a microclimate with slightly higher humidity around the tree, which can benefit certain tree species, especially those that thrive in more humid environments.

Additional Shade

Depending on the density of air plants on a tree, they may provide a small amount of additional shade, which can help protect the tree’s bark from intense sunlight. This is particularly beneficial for trees that have sensitive bark.

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Support

One of the more significant benefits that air plants can bring to trees is their contribution to the local ecosystem. By providing additional spaces for small creatures to inhabit, they help increase local biodiversity. For example, some birds might use air plants as nesting sites, and insects could use them for shelter or even feed on them.

This diversity can contribute to a healthy, balanced ecosystem, where different species keep each other’s populations in check. This can indirectly benefit the tree by preventing any one species from becoming too dominant and potentially causing harm to the tree.

Aesthetic Appeal

While this might not be a direct benefit to the tree’s health, trees laden with air plants can be incredibly beautiful and intriguing, adding aesthetic value to the landscape. This may result in better care and attention being paid to these trees, promoting their overall health and longevity.

Nutrient Recycling

Air plants, being epiphytes, gather nutrients from sources other than the tree, including dust particles, organic debris, and rainfall. When these plants die and decompose, these nutrients are returned to the ecosystem and can become available to other organisms, including the host tree.

Are Air Plants Harmful to Trees
Are Air Plants Harmful to Trees

Furthermore, you may like some more gardening articles:


Air plants pose no harm to trees. In fact, their existence contributes to a rich, diverse ecosystem. These unique plants have evolved to live in harmony with their hosts, posing no threat to their well-being.

Therefore, if you are considering adding some air plants to the trees in your garden, you can proceed with confidence, knowing that you’re not causing harm to your trees.


Do air plants harm trees?

No, air plants do not harm trees. They are epiphytic, meaning they grow on the surface of other plants, but they do not extract nutrients or water from their hosts.

Can air plants kill trees?

Air plants are not capable of killing trees. They only use trees as physical support and do not affect the tree’s growth or health.

Do air plants prefer certain trees?

Air plants can grow on a wide variety of trees, but they are often found on trees with rough bark, which provides a good grip for their roots.

Can I plant air plants on any tree in my garden?

Yes, you can place air plants on any tree in your garden. However, they prefer trees with rough bark and good air circulation.

How do I attach air plants to trees?

Air plants can be tied gently to trees using a non-copper wire or a nylon string. Over time, they’ll anchor themselves to the tree.